Detroit History Timeline
from 1701 to 1760
|1701||(August) The Treaty of Montreal is signed ending the war with the Iroquois.|
Cadillac returns to Quebec from France having gotten the King's permission to establish a settlement in the Detroit area. The grant hasn't been made formal yet.
Quebec - Governor of New France (Hector Louis de Callieres) meets with Antoine Laumet de la Mothe Cadillac, Sieur de Douaguet and Mont Desert; Alphonse de Tonty; and others to celebrate the granting of commission of Commandant of 15 square acres of his choice along the Detroit River to Cadillac by Count Ponchartrain, the Minister of Marine under Louis XIV.
Cadillac sets sail from Montreal to found a new settlement in the lower region. He takes with him 25 canoes, 2 priests, 50 soldiers, 50 coureurs de bois, 100 Native Americans, and his 2nd in command, Alphonse di Tonty.
Cadillac and party reach the Detroit River. They spend the night on Grosse Ile
A crop of winter wheat is sown, placing Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit) on its way to self-sufficiency. It is the first wheat ever to be sown in present day Michigan.
King Louis XIV signs a contract giving Fort Ponchartrain and Frontenac operations to the Company of the Colony of Canada.
September (the exact date is uncertain) - Madame Marie Therese Guyon Cadillac and Marianne de Tonty leave Quebec and set out for Fort Ponchartrain du Detroit. They are the first non-Native American women to visit and live in the fort. Woodford says the women arrived in Detroit at this time.
(May - exact date unknown)) Mdes. Cadillac and de Tonty (and the families of other soldiers) arrive at Fort Ponchartrain. They are the first non-native women to visit Detroit.
Radisson and Arnault (of the Company of the Colony of Canada) arrive at Fort Ponchartrain to assume its control.
Cadillac leaves Fort Ponchartrain for Quebec to try to get changes made to the contract with the Company of the Colony (specifically to regain control of his settlement).
|1703||Fort Ponchartrain is partially burned in a fire set by an unknown arsonist.|
Thirty Huron families arrive in Detroit from St. Ignace. There they set up a village outside of Fort Ponchartrain.
|1704||Alphonse de Tonty unofficially commands the garrison at Fort Ponchartrain in Cadillac's absence. He is removed from Detroit after being caught in an embezzlement scheme.|
Marie Therese Cadillac, daughter of Antoine and Marie Therese (Guyon) Cadillac, is born. She is the first child to be baptized in Detroit.
Despite the agreement with the Company of the Colony of Canada, Count Ponchartrain gives Cadillac the power to grant land in and around Fort Ponchartrain to individuals. He is in the middle of a law suit at this time and doesn't actually start divvying up property until 1707.
|1705||Alphonse de Tonty takes temporary control of the garrison at Fort Ponchartrain for the second time while Cadillac is in Quebec.|
Control of Fort Ponchartrain is restored to Cadillac (from the Company of the Colony of Canada).
Francois de la Forest commands Fort Ponchartrain in Cadillac's absence.
Cadillac leaves Fort Ponchartrain du Detroit on a routine visit to Montreal and Quebec. He leaves Lieutenant Etienne Venyard (Veniard), Sieur de Bourgmont in charge.
Father del Halle is murdered by an Ottawa man, becoming Detroit's first murder victim.
|1707 - 1710||68 individual land lots are granted to private citizens by Cadillac in and around Fort Ponchartrain.|
|1710||Cadillac is relieved of command of Fort Ponchartrain du Detroit and made governor of Louisiana Territory.|
|1711||Cadillac leaves Fort Ponchartrain for the last time. He is replaced by Charles Regnault, Sieur du Buisson, who fills in for Francois de la Forest, the official replacement.|
|1712||Summer - Francois de la Forest returns to Fort Ponchartrain to take command from Buisson. He holds the position until his death in October of 1714.|
|1712||Summer(?) - Jacques Charles Sabrevois, Sieur de Bleury is made commandant of Fort Ponchartrain. He is not able to fill that position until 1714 (or early 1715).|
May (exact date not known) - 1,000 Foxes and some Mascoutens arrive in Detroit and begin causing trouble.
Francois la Forest dies in Quebec. Buisson takes command of Fort Ponchartrain again - but only until Sabrevois arrives from Quebec in early 1715.
|1715||A new fort is built at present day Mackinaw City. It is named Fort Michilimackinac.|
|1715 - 1717||Sabrevois, the current commandant of Fort Ponchartrain, uses his own money to try to repair the fort.|
|1716||The French Court voids all deeds set by Cadillac.|
July (exact date unknown) - Alphonse de Tonty becomes commandant at Fort Ponchartrain.
|1721||Pierre Francois Xavier Charlevoix visits Fort Ponchartrain. His visit leads to Father Richardie's founding of the Huron Mission in the Windsor area (across the river from Detroit) in 1728.|
|1721||Winter 1721-22 Tonty goes to Quebec to answer to complaints about his leadership at Fort Ponchartrain.|
|1724||Tonty travels to Quebec to answer to charges that he violated Francois la Marque's rights.|
|1725 - 1730||Officials in Paris and Quebec decide to beef up Fort Ponchartrain in lieu of wars with Great Britain. New settlers come to the area from Nova Scotia.|
|1727||a) Marquis de Beauharnois becomes Governor of New France|
|1727||b) Alphonse de Tonty travels to Quebec to welcome new governor, Marquis de Beauharnois.|
|1727||c) Marquis de Beauharnois fires Tonty from command at Fort Ponchartrain, effective Spring 1728.|
November - After having been relieved of command (to have taken effect in the spring of 1728), Alphonse de Tonty dies in Fort Ponchartrain.
|1728||Father Armand de la Richardie is sent to Detroit by the Jesuit order of Quebec to build a mission for the Hurons.|
|1728||Father Richardie builds a Huron Mission across the Detroit River in present day Windsor, Ontario.|
|1728||Jean Baptist de St. Ours, Sieur des Chaillons (Deschaillons?) is commissioned to take Tonty's place as commandant of Fort Ponchartrain. He is the fifth official commandant at the settlement.|
|1729||Spring - Chaillons (Deschaillons?) gives up command at Fort Ponchartrain in hopes of a military promotion.|
|1730||(Year not certain) Louis Henry Deschamps, Sieur de Boishebert replaces Chaillons, becoming the sixth commandant of Fort Ponchartrain.|
Cadillac dies in Castelsarrasin, France.
|1733||a) Louis Henry Deschamps, Sieur de Boishebert leaves his post at Fort Ponchartrain.|
|1733||b) Ives Jacques Hugues Pean, Sieur de Livandiere replaces Deschamps as commandant at Fort Ponchartrain.|
|1734||Robert Navarre, son of Robert Navarre of Villeroy, France, is appointed royal notary of Fort Ponchartrain. It is the first time the court has seen fit to provide such a position.|
|1735||Wheat is added to Fort Ponchartrain's list of exports (other items include maple syrup and fur).|
|1736||Nicolas Joseph des Noyelles becomes the unofficial (?) commandant of Fort Ponchartrain.|
Louis Henry Deschamps dies in Montreal.
|1739||Pierre Jacques Payan de Noyan, Sieur de Charvis, becomes the eighth official commandant of Fort Ponchartrain.|
Pierre Joseph Celoron, Sieur de Blainville, becomes the ninth official commandant of Fort Ponchartrain.
|1743||Paul Joseph le Moine, Chevalier de Longeuil is appointed commandant of Fort Ponchartrain (to take effect in 1744)|
|1744||The Ouendots (Hurons) leave the Mission in Windsor for the Ohio River Valley, then Bois Blanc (Bob-Lo) Island, where they live until 1749.|
British and New Englanders attack the French post Louisburg (at the head of the St. Lawrence River) in attempts to gain full access to the great waterway. The ensuing battle lasts 10 weeks and ends with the French surrendering the post.
|1746||Chief Mackinac leads a group of Chippewas in an attack on Fort Ponchartrain. The attack is halted by Chief Pontiac, of the Ottawas, who drives the Chippewas away.|
Ives Jacques Hugues Pean, Sieur de Livandiere dies.
Jean Baptist de St. Ours, Sieur Deschaillons, dies in Quebec.
|1748||The French and British sign the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle. Louisburg once again becomes a French post.|
|1749||The Ounedots (Hurons) return to the mission in Windsor.|
|1750||Pierre Joseph Celoron, Sieur de Blainville, is appointed to a second term as commandant of Fort Ponchartrain.|
|1754||(Year is not certain) Jacques Pierre Daneau, Sieur de Muy becomes commandant of Fort Ponchartrain.|
|1758||British General Jeffrey Amherst leads a second attack on Louisburg. The British once again take possession of he fort. Later the same year, the British take Fort Duquesne.|
|1758||Francois Marie Picote de Bellestre becomes commandant of Fort Ponchartrain. He is the last commandant under French command.|
Jacques Pierre Daneau, Sieur de Muy dies in Fort Ponchartrain. Jean Baptiste Henry Beranger assumes the role of commandant until Picote de Belestre arrives later in the year. Belestre is the last commandant under French rule.
|1759||(July) The British capture Fort Niagara|
Pierre Joseph Celoron, Sieur de Blainville, dies in Montreal.
The British capture Quebec.
The British capture Montreal. The Articles of Capitulation stipulate that all remaining French posts are to be handed over to the British.
Major Robert Rogers takes command of Fort Ponchartrain (now called Fort Detroit) for the British.
Major Rogers leaves Detroit for Fort Pitt. Captain Donald Campbell becomes commandant.